Fixation
2024
Museum of the Moving Image

A 3D model developed by Meta to train eye-tracking algorithms recalls its prehistory in the visual effects industry. Returned to cinema, its operations as training data are inverted. The truss for synthetic, attention-manipulating media emerges here as a character in its own right.

Visual Inspection Zone
Proof of Personhood, 2019/2023
Singapore Art Museum

Visual Inspection Zone borrows from a series of promotional images of Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg produced during a “refugee simulation” at the World Economic Forum in Davos in 2010. The imaginary scenario documented by the publicity image—the spectacular violence of the border regime—is inverted into a new documentary of the fictional images constructed by passport counterfeiters.

Using a software package developed and disseminated by passport counterfeiters, Sheryl's identity is combined with the biometric information of passports and identity cards trafficked on the dark web until a plausible hybrid identity is achieved. The "Visual Inspection Zone" is the non-machine-readable portion of a passport's identity page: moving between the images, the audience constructs a third identity between Sheryl and her inadvertent proxies (Erika, Alessia, Sozan, Raghda, Lily, Zahra, and Sheera)—the border officer.

SMPLverse
SMPLverse, 2022

Mirror Announcement

SMPLverse NFTs use facial recognition to match users to images synthesized by Microsoft to train face tracking algorithms for its mixed reality headsets. Like many NFT projects, Microsoft's dataset was procedurally-generated from a library of digital assets: from a template 3D face model, 100,000 images were rendered with random identities, expressions, textures, hair, clothing, and environments.

Synthetic data is increasingly used to train computer vision algorithms because it is diverse and perfectly labeled by design. In mixed reality headsets, these algorithms communicate the slightest expressions of bodily reality to virtual images. The synthetic data on which these algorithms are trained are the medium of this communication, the skins we wear on the metaverse's computational layer. Though the figures in Microsoft's dataset resemble the avatars that populate the metaverse's surface, they function as avatars for the infrastructure along which all other avatars travel.

If the fundamental problem animating NFT projects consists of investing images with new identities and realities, SMPLverse elaborates the ultimate indifference of our images—corporeal and otherwise—to those identifications.

Renovations
Renovations, 2021

An essay on enclosures, constructions, and renovations. First printing wheatpasted on the barricades that shielded art institutions from the summer of 2020.

Taking Longer and Producing Less
Conjuncture, 2020
Elizabeth Foundation for the Arts, New York, NY

Exhibition Catalogue

A stack of mirrored mail-order envelopes are left at the exhibition space. Visitors who return an envelope by mail with their information are sent a set of 18 artist-designed envelopes from the exhibition space on its letterhead. The work is the animation of the mailpiece images derived from these envelopes by the United States Postal Service's universal mail imaging program.

Immovable Properties
Immovable Properties, 2020
1BBP, New York, NY

Exhibition Checklist

The fifth preference EB-5 visa provides a path to citizenship for alien investors who make an investment of capital not less than the statutory minimum in a new commercial enterprise “which will benefit the United States economy” and “create permanent, full-time employment” for at least 10 qualifying U.S. workers in the United States. The EB-5 program allows the state to extract monopoly rent on its exclusive territorial sovereignty and its prerogative power of immigration enforcement; the evaporation of traditional real estate financing since the 2008 financial crisis has made major development projects reliant on the program to maintain favorable profit margins.

An exhibition is staged in a donated real estate venue constructed under the EB-5 program. The venue is left open to the public for the exhibition duration.

Distinction, 2020
Anonymized press submitted in satisfaction of the evidentiary criteria for O-1B and EB-1 ("artist's") visas

PERMANENT, FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT, INC., 2020
New Commercial Enterprise (NCE) established to satisfy the requirements of the EB-5 visa, pending activation by an investment of capital in an amount not less than the statutory minimum by an immigrant investor

Trilogy (Limassol Seafront), 2019
C-Prints of development projects animated by Cyprus' citizenship-by-investment program

Liquid Allowance, 2020
Air travel-compliant resealable bags with potable water

Fixture, 2020
Materials at One Brooklyn Bridge Park provided by Licensor (Chashama, Inc.) in excess of those provided by Landlord (RAL Companies, Vanke US, and Oliver's Realty Group) to equip the exhibition space

Provisional Readymades
Exit Strategy, 2019
NeMe Arts Centre, Limassol, Cyprus

Auction Catalogue

Provisional Readymades takes up the temporal structure of the exhibition to temporarily introduce goods from Turkish-occupied northern Cyprus into the sovereign Republic of Cyprus. In accordance with the procedures enumerated by European Council Regulation No. 866/2004, which establishes special rules for those areas of Cyprus “temporarily outside the area of freedom, justice and security,” the goods were accompanied by an auction catalogue “providing reasonable evidence” of their intended exhibition.

After their mandatory exhibition period at the NeMe Arts Centre in Limassol (Republic of Cyprus), the objects were placed on long-term loan to S.N.K. Venus Home Developers Ltd (liquidated 2011) in Pyla, a bicommunal village located in the United Nations buffer zone.

Chekhov's Gun
Chekhov's Gun, 2018
062 Gallery, Chicago, IL

Exhibition Catalogue

Using a network of microphones dispersed throughout a city, ShotSpotter triangulates the location of a gunshot by comparing the distance from its point of origin to the three closest microphones. ShotSpotter installs and maintains these systems themselves, renting access to local police departments, which pay per square mile of coverage. The microphones suffer from selective hearing: police departments are only willing to pay to listen to certain communities. Besides real-time surveillance, the proprietary data which ShotSpotter collects is fed into the company's machine learning dataset and spun off into predictive policing programs which police departments may also subscribe to. Given the fallibility of the system, the data is regularly retrofit by human analysts to substantiate the claims made by police officers in court.

The film Chekhov's Gun stars a group of technical support engineers employed by ShotSpotter to visually confirm that the soundwaves selected by ShotSpotter's machine classification are gunfire and that the time signatures have been correctly synced for echolocation. The three employees rehearse a dialogue based on court transcripts in which ShotSpotter employees testify to the efficacy of the gunshot detection system; their staging anticipates the triangulation of gunfire. The film installation includes screenprints marking moments of mishearing in the testimony, a bench padded with acoustic foam, and an acoustic diffuser produced from a Chicago gunshot prediction map, altering the acoustic texture of the exhibition space.

A series of acoustic interventions used a purpose-built parametric speaker to communicate with ShotSpotter's technical support engineers via their own gunshot training dataset, isolating an individual microphone in Chicago from its intended function in the network. The waveforms of these interventions were encoded for compact disc—the technological standard for courtroom evidence—and reproduced as embossings.

Impulse, 2018
HD video, 4m 26s, installation view

Chekhov's Gun, 2018
HD video, 8m 11s, installation view

Chekhov's Gun, 2018
HD video, 8m 11s, installation view

Chekhov's Gun, 2018
HD video, 8m 11s, installation view

Sounds Like Trouble I, 2018
Screenprint

Sounds Like Trouble II, 2018
Screenprint

Sounds Like Trouble III, 2018
Screenprint

Selective Hearing, 2018
Parametric speaker with PredPol acoustic diffuser

Hard Scrabble Sound, 2018
Event with ShotSpotter microphone and James Turrell skyspace

train_ZXXbk8vGe1s_300.000.wav, 2018
Waveform embossing

train_L-pdYUKLS88_260.000.wav, 2018
Waveform embossing

train_fAmA7zTw8SY_490.000.wav, 2018
Waveform embossing

Rehearing/Rehearsing, 2018
Exhibition catalogue excerpt

Rehearing/Rehearsing, 2018
Exhibition catalogue excerpt

Key Length, Width, Height
2017
LITHIUM Gallery, Chicago, IL

Magnetic stripe cards encoded to unlock ATM vestibules, on offer to the public.